Primitivo is an Italian black grapes vine variety, whose best lands to germinate and produce fruit are the clay and calcareous loams in Apulia. It is particularly spread in the province of Taranto, a city included in the Salentine region situated in the South of Italy, where the climate is hot and dry. Although its origins are uncertain, it is presumed to have been brought from Dalmatia or Croatia to Apulia by the ancient Illyrians, over 2,000 years ago. Almost certainly, it is named Primitivo after the Italian term “primo”, meaning “first”, due to the precocity of its biological cycle, from flowering to the grapes ripening. In fact, unlike the vine varieties with a late ripening time, Primitivo grapes are usually harvested between the end of August and the first ten days of September.

Varietal Characteristics: The Primitivo variety has mdedium-sized, pentagonal and five-lobe shaped leaves. Its clusters are medium-sized, long, simple cone or cylindrical-shaped, winged or double, usually compact. Its grapes are medium-sized and spheroidal, with plenty of bloom on their medium-thick and bluish skin.

Production Features: The Primitivo variety has a medium vigour and an early ripening time, with a high but little constant productivity.

Cultivation and Training: The Primitivo variety cannot tolerate the drought and high temperatures. Its traditional training system is free-standing with 4 or 5 spurs.

Wine Features: The wine originated by the Primitivo variety has a really intense and dark ruby red colour. Its bouquet is spicy and fruity. Its taste is warm, soft, fairly tannic, full-bodied and considerably persistent.



Negroamaro is a variety with black grapes, almost exclusively cultivated in Apulia. In particular, Salento is the area where it is mostly grown, but it can also be found elsewhere in this region. Its origins probably date back to the ancient Greek colonization all over the Peninsula - especially in the South - starting from the 18th century B.C. Negroamaro is named after its main characteristics - the near-black colour of its wines and their slightly bitter taste. Although etymologists have not found the precise origins of its name, they agree with two theories. The first one is about the combination of the Latin term niger - meaning black - and the Greek word mavros - meaning black, too - so originating a name meaning ‘black black’ due to the intense dark colour of wines. The second one is related to the expression niuru maru originated from the dialect spoken in Salento by describing both its dark colour - niuru means black - and its bitter taste - maru means bitter. Its productivity is really high and it is cultivated through free standing vines for quality vinification, whereas the traditional cultivation system on Apulian pergolas is used for the production of high quantities. The vine growing method is chosen according to the availability of water and, sometimes, the use of espaliers is necessary.

Varietal Characteristics: The Negroamaro variety has big-sized, pentagonal, three-lobe or five-lobe shaped leaves. Its clusters are medium-sized, truncated cone-shaped, short and compact. Its grapes are medium or big-sized and obovoid, with plenty of bloom on their thick and compact, black-violet skin.

Production Features: The Negroamaro variety originates copious and constant quantities of grapes. It is best grown on clay and calcareous loams, but it can also adapt to other types of soil, as well as to hot and dry climates.

Cultivation and Training: The Negroamaro variety is mainly grown free-standing and on pergolas, with long or short pruning.

Wine Features: The wine originated by the Negroamaro variety has an intense garnet-red colour. Its bouquet is fruity, with a touch of small black-berry-based fruits and notes of tobacco. Its taste is full-bodied, slightly bitter and round.



Aglianico is a thousand-year old variety, which probably originated in Magna Grecia and was brought to Italy around the 7th-6th century B.C. The origins of its name are uncertain; however, it is presumed to derive from the vulgarization of the original word “ellenico” during the Aragona’s dominion in the 15th century, until the current term “aglianico”. The Aglianico variety is best grown on hill, volcanic, clay and calcareous loams. It has high vigour and productivity and it ripens quite late, usually starting from mid-October. The wine originated by the Aglianico variety has an intense ruby-red colour, with full aromas reminiscent of its soil of origin. This wine gets fine and harmonious when refined in wooden big barrels, as well as in barrique.

Varietal Characteristics: The Aglianico variety has medium-sized, long, orbicular or three-lobe shaped leaves. Its clusters are small or medium-sized, cylindrical, compact and winged. Its grapes are small or medium-sized and ellipsoidal, with plenty of bloom on their thin, tough, blue-black skin.

Production Features: The Aglianico variety has medium-high vigour with a copious and constant productivity. Its ideal habitat are hill and volcanic soils, but it can also adapt to other types of ground.

Cultivation and Training: The Aglianico variety is best grown on espaliers. However, other training systems can also be used.

Wine Features: The wine originated by the Aglianico variety is ruby-red, fruity, fresh, tannic, full-bodied and suitable for ageing



Malvasia is a name given to a white grapes vine variety, that originates a wine with moss and apricot aromas and a quite high quantity of residual sugar. It is a variety with a medium ripening time; in fact, it is harvested between the second and the third week of September. It is presumed that it is named Malvasia after the contracted variation of Monembasia. That was a stronghold located in the South of Peloponnese, where they used to produce sweet wines - named Monemvasia - that the Venetians exported all over Europe.

Varietal Characteristics: The White Malvasia has medium or big-sized, pentagonal, five-lobe or three-lobed shaped leaves. Its clusters are medium or big, usually long, conical or cylindrical, straggly, sometimes winged, with medium green peduncles. Its grapes are small or medium-sized, round and spheroidal, with plenty of bloom on their medium-thick, straw yellow skin, and their pulp is rich, with a neutral taste.

Production Features The White Malvasia variety has a medium ripening time and it is harvested in the second half of September.

Cultivation and Training: The White Malvasia has a really high vigour, high productivity and it is best grown through expanded training systems. It can get over hard climate conditions and the main deseases.

Wine Features: The wine originated by the White Malvasia variety is straw yellow with golden hints, sometimes intense. Its aroma is fresh and fruity, with notes of almonds, hazelnuts, apricots and flowers. Its taste is flavourful and good in acidity.



Verdeca is a white grapes vine variety mainly cultivated in Apulia. It is named after the greenish colour of its grapes, which usually originate straw yellow wines with intense green hints. Its aromas are reminiscent of herbaceous scents, exotic fruit and citrus notes. Its taste is highly fresh and flavorful. The origins of this variety are uncertain. However, it is presumed to come from the nearby Greek. The only certainty is related to the cultivation zone, that has extended over different Apulian areas for long. In fact, it is the most popular white grapes vine variety in this region. It does not need any particular environment conditions and it is best grown on low-deep lands.

Varietal Characteristics: The Verdeca variety has medium or big-sized, three-lobe or five-lobe shaped leaves. Its clusters are medium-sized, cone-shaped, with one or two wings. Its grapes are medium-sized and spheroidal, with plenty of bloom on their medium-thick, tender, and yellow-greenish skin.

Production and Cultivation Features: The Verdeca variety has a good vigour and an early-medium ripening time.

Wine Features: The wine originated by the Verdeca variety has a straw yellow colour with green hints. Its bouquet is delicate and fruity, with notes of pineapple a touch of citrus and bergamot. Its taste is dry and fresh, with a harmonious flavour and a good persistence.

Vine Varieties